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From Field to Factory Floor: The Intricate Journey of Cotton in a T-Shirt Factory

Updated: Jun 19

t shirt factory cotton bales


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Cotton is a staple material in the textile industry, particularly for T-shirt manufacturing. Understanding the complex process of sorting and organizing cotton, ensuring its quality, and preparing it for production is crucial. This article delves into the journey of cotton from the field to the factory floor, highlighting its transformation into the comfortable T-shirts we wear daily.

Understanding Cotton: Organic vs. Conventional

Organic Cotton:

Organic cotton is grown without synthetic pesticides, fertilizers, or genetically modified organisms (GMOs). To ensure cotton is organic, it must meet stringent certification standards set by organizations such as the Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS) or the Organic Content Standard (OCS). These standards verify that the cotton is grown and processed according to organic farming principles.

Conventional Cotton:

Conventional cotton, on the other hand, is often grown using synthetic chemicals and GMOs to increase yield and resist pests. While it is more widely available and cheaper, it may have a larger environmental footprint compared to organic cotton.

Sourcing and Buying Cotton

Cotton Origins:

Cotton is grown in various parts of the world, each offering unique qualities. Major cotton-producing countries include the United States, India, China, and Egypt. Egyptian cotton is known for its long fibers and superior softness, while American Pima cotton is valued for its strength and silky texture.

Purchasing Cotton:

Buying cotton involves selecting the right type based on the desired quality and characteristics. Cotton is typically purchased in bales, which are large, compressed packages weighing around 500 pounds each. Textile manufacturers often source cotton through brokers, directly from farms, or via auctions.

GSM and Weight: Key Metrics in Cotton Fabric

GSM (Grams per Square Meter):

GSM is a measure of fabric weight, indicating the density of the cotton used in T-shirts. A higher GSM means a heavier, thicker fabric, while a lower GSM indicates a lighter, more breathable material. Typical T-shirt fabrics range from 120 GSM (lightweight) to 200 GSM (heavyweight).

Weight and Percentages:

Cotton fabric is often blended with other materials like polyester to enhance durability and reduce costs. Common blends include 100% cotton, 50/50 cotton-polyester, and tri-blends (cotton, polyester, and rayon). Each blend offers different properties in terms of feel, durability, and moisture-wicking capabilities.

Why Cotton is Ideal for T-Shirts

Cotton is a popular choice for T-shirts due to its natural breathability, softness, and hypoallergenic properties. It absorbs moisture well, making it comfortable to wear in various climates. Additionally, cotton’s versatility allows it to be dyed and printed easily, offering a wide range of design possibilities.

Preparing Cotton in the Factory

Sorting and Cleaning:

Once cotton arrives at the factory, it undergoes sorting and cleaning. The bales are opened, and the cotton is cleaned to remove impurities like dirt, seeds, and short fibers. This process ensures the cotton is pure and ready for spinning.


The cleaned cotton is spun into yarn. This involves twisting the fibers together to create long, continuous threads. The yarn is then wound onto bobbins, ready for weaving or knitting.

Knitting or Weaving:

For T-shirt production, the yarn is typically knitted into fabric using circular knitting machines. This method produces a stretchy, comfortable material ideal for T-shirts. Weaving, which interlaces the yarns at right angles, is less common for T-shirt fabric but used for other types of clothing.

Dyeing and Finishing:

The knitted fabric is dyed in large dye baths, where it absorbs the desired colors. After dyeing, the fabric is treated with various finishes to enhance its properties, such as softness, durability, and resistance to shrinking.

Cutting and Sewing


The dyed and finished fabric is laid out in multiple layers and cut into T-shirt shapes using patterns and templates. Cutting machines ensure precision and efficiency, reducing waste and maintaining consistency.


The cut pieces are sewn together using specialized sewing machines. Different machines and needles are used for various seams and stitches, ensuring the T-shirt is constructed properly. Overlock machines, flatlock machines, and coverstitch machines are commonly used in T-shirt production.

Washing and Quality Control

Cold Washing:

Cotton T-shirts are often washed in cold water to prevent shrinking and fading. Cold washing also helps maintain the fabric’s integrity and extends the lifespan of the garment.

Quality Control:

Throughout the manufacturing process, rigorous quality control measures are in place. Inspections ensure that the fabric, stitching, and overall construction meet industry standards. Defective items are removed from the production line to maintain high-quality output.


The journey of cotton from the field to the factory floor is a complex and meticulously managed process. From selecting and sourcing the right type of cotton to ensuring quality through spinning, knitting, dyeing, and sewing, every step is crucial in producing high-quality T-shirts. Understanding these processes highlights the expertise and precision required in the textile industry.


• Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS)

• Organic Content Standard (OCS)

• United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)

• Textile Exchange

• International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC)

• “Cotton: Science and Technology” edited by S. Gordon and Y. Hsieh


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